The clinical application of endoscopy
First, the examination of gastrointestinal diseases
(1) Esophagus: chronic esophagitis, esophageal varices, esophageal foramen hernia, esophageal leiomyomas, esophageal cancer and cardiac cancer.
(2) stomach and duodenum: chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, benign gastric tumor, gastric cancer duodenal ulcer, duodenal tumor.
(3) Small intestine: small intestine tumor, smooth muscle tumor, sarcoma, polyp, lymphoma, inflammation, etc.
(4) Large intestine: non-specific ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chronic colitis, colon polyps, colorectal cancer, and so on.
Second, the examination of pancreatic and biliary diseases: pancreatic cancer, cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma, etc.
Third, laparoscopy: liver disease, biliary diseases, etc.
Fourth, the examination of respiratory diseases: lung cancer, lung biopsy and brush examination by transbronchoscopy, selective bronchography.
Fifth, urinary tract examination: cystitis, bladder binding, bladder tumor, nephronophthisis, kidney stones, kidney tumors, ureteral congenital malformations, ureteral stones, ureteral tumors.